Jumat, 30 September 2016

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

NASA's Fermi finds record-breaking binary in galaxy next door

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 07:01 PM PDT

Scientists have found the first gamma-ray binary in another galaxy and the most luminous one ever seen. The dual-star system, dubbed LMC P3, contains a massive star and a crushed stellar core that interact to produce a cyclic flood of gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light.

Rosetta instrument provided first-ever ultraviolet observations of a comet

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 12:58 PM PDT

After a two-year orbital tour around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, ESA's Rosetta spacecraft -- carrying the Alice ultraviolet spectrograph -- will end its mission on Sept. 30. Rosetta is the first spacecraft to orbit and escort a comet, and Alice, developed and operated for NASA, is the first instrument to obtain far-ultraviolet observations at a comet.

Spiral arms in protoplanetary disk: They're not just for galaxies any more

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 11:53 AM PDT

Astronomers have found distinct spiral arms in the disk of gas and dust surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. While similar features have been observed on the surfaces of such disks before, this is the first time they have been identified within the disk, where planet formation takes place. Structures such as these could either indicate the presence of a newly formed planet, or else create the necessary conditions for a planet to form. As such, the results are a crucial step towards a better understanding how planetary systems like our Solar system came into being.

Game theory research reveals fragility of common resources

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 11:36 AM PDT

People are naturally predisposed to over-use "common-pool resources" such as transportation systems and fisheries even if it risks failure of the system, to the detriment of society as a whole, new research in game theory shows.

Curiosity finds evidence of Mars crust contributing to atmosphere

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 11:34 AM PDT

NASA's Curiosity rover has found evidence that chemistry in the surface material on Mars contributed dynamically to the makeup of its atmosphere over time. It's another clue that the history of the Red Planet's atmosphere is more complex and interesting than a simple legacy of loss.

Good food puts bees in good mood

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 11:23 AM PDT

After bumblebees drink a small droplet of really sweet sugar water, they behave like they are in a positive emotion-like state, scientists have discovered. 

Scientists track unexpected mechanisms of memory

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 11:05 AM PDT

Our brains hold on to memories via physical changes in synapses, the tiny connections between neurons. Unexpected molecular mechanisms by which these changes take place have now been revealed by new research.

New devices emulate human biological synapses

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 10:54 AM PDT

A new type of nanodevice for computer microprocessors is being developed that can mimic the functioning of a biological synapse -- the place where a signal passes from one nerve cell to another in the body, report scientists.

New evidence shifts the timeline back for human arrival in the Americas

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Humans occupied South America earlier than previously thought, according to the recent discovery of ancient artifacts found at an archeological site in Argentina.

Use of body-worn cameras sees complaints against police 'virtually vanish,' study finds

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 10:24 AM PDT

The introduction of wearable cameras led to a 93% drop in complaints made against police by the public – suggesting the cameras result in behavioral changes that 'cool down' potentially volatile encounters, a year-long study of almost 2,000 officers across UK and US forces shows.

Where you live shapes your immune system more than your genes

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 10:24 AM PDT

Like fingerprints, immune systems vary from person to person. And although we all inherit a unique set of genes that help us respond to infections, recent studies have found that our history and environment--like where and with whom we live--are responsible for 60% to 80% of the differences between individual immune systems, while genetics account for the rest.

Food additive key to environmentally friendly, efficient, plastic solar cells

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 08:17 AM PDT

An efficient, semi-printed plastic solar cell has now been created without the use of environmentally hazardous halogen solvents.

Human and avian running on uneven ground

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 06:53 AM PDT

Humans and birds adapt their movement when running on uneven ground. "And even though their adaptation mechanisms and strategies developed completely independently, they do so in very similar ways", outlines a new report that analyzes human and avian locomotion on uneven ground. 

Genes underlying dogs' social ability revealed

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 06:26 AM PDT

The social ability of dogs is affected by genes that also seems to influence human behavior, according to a new study. The scientists have found a relationship between five different genes and the ability of dogs to interact with humans. Four of them also show similarities to certain conditions in humans.

ALMA catches stellar cocoon with curious chemistry: First of its kind to be found outside the Milky Way

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 05:20 AM PDT

A hot and dense mass of complex molecules, cocooning a newborn star, has been discovered astronomers using ALMA. This unique hot molecular core is the first of its kind to have been detected outside the Milky Way galaxy. It has a very different molecular composition from similar objects in our own galaxy -- a tantalizing hint that the chemistry taking place across the Universe could be much more diverse than expected.

Marine snow fuels life on the sea-floor

Posted: 29 Sep 2016 05:20 AM PDT

City-sized maps of terrain and life on the sea-floor have revealed that drifts of 'marine snow' on submarine hillsides act as a source of food to fuel a higher biomass of marine life on the hills than on the flatter plains surrounding hills This finding comes from research that may help improve understanding of how features, like hillside slopes and plateaus, add complexity to seafloor habitats and help drive the distribution of marine life.

Rare flu-thwarting mutation discovered

Posted: 28 Sep 2016 07:13 PM PDT

A rare and improbable mutation in a protein encoded by an influenza virus renders the virus defenseless against the body's immune system. This discovery could provide a new strategy for live influenza vaccines in the future, say scientists

'Incomprehensible' birth of supercrystal explained

Posted: 28 Sep 2016 06:30 PM PDT

Two years ago, a research team published an article explaining how they had created a material with unique and extremely interesting electronic characteristics. In this 'supercrystal', the electrons move almost with the speed of photons, and the electric current can be switched on and off. This makes it ideal for ultra-fast electronics. But at the time, the researchers were at a loss to explain how this 'supercrystal' obtained its unique structure. Now they have unraveled the mystery, and it appears to involve a completely different mechanism for crystal formation.

Moderate activity helps older adults maintain mobility, independence

Posted: 28 Sep 2016 11:32 AM PDT

By adopting a walking routine and other moderate physical activities, older adults can recover from a major disability more quickly, and maintain their independence over time, according to a new study.

Brain disruptions similar across many emotional disorders

Posted: 28 Sep 2016 11:19 AM PDT

In an analysis of existing studies that used MRI images to study the brain's white matter, researchers describe common brain abnormalities found in multiple emotional disorders.

Rosetta may be crashing, but its legacy lives on here on Earth

Posted: 28 Sep 2016 06:19 AM PDT

ESA's Rosetta spacecraft arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014, following a ten-year journey through the Solar System after its launch on 2 March 2004. The Philae lander was sent down to the surface of the comet on 12 November 2014. Confirmation of the end of mission is expected from ESA's main control room at 11:20 GMT or 13:20 CEST +/- 20 minutes on 30 September, with the spacecraft set on a collision course with the comet the evening before.
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