Sabtu, 10 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Why an ice age occurs every 100,000 years: Climate and feedback effects explained

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:41 AM PDT

Science has struggled to explain fully why an ice age occurs every 100,000 years. As researchers now demonstrate based on a computer simulation, not only do variations in insolation play a key role, but also the mutual influence of glaciated continents and climate.
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Jumat, 09 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Scientists visualize how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 02:00 PM PDT

For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome.

Investigational malaria vaccine found safe and protective

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 11:21 AM PDT

An investigational malaria vaccine has been found to be safe, to generate an immune system response, and to offer protection against malaria infection in healthy adults, according to new results.

Pass the salt: Common condiment could enable new high-tech industry -- silicon nanostructures

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 11:21 AM PDT

Chemists have identified a compound that could significantly reduce the cost and potentially enable the mass commercial production of silicon nanostructures -- materials that have huge potential in everything from electronics to biomedicine and energy storage. This extraordinary compound is called table salt.

Atomic clock can simulate quantum magnetism

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 11:21 AM PDT

Researchers have for the first time used an atomic clock as a quantum simulator, mimicking the behavior of a different, more complex quantum system. All but the smallest, most trivial quantum systems are too complicated to simulate on classical computers, hence the interest in quantum simulators to understand the quantum mechanical behavior of exotic materials such as high-temperature superconductors.

Ozone hole might slightly warm planet, computer model suggests

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 09:45 AM PDT

A lot of people mix up the ozone hole and global warming, believing the hole is a major cause of the world's increasing average temperature. Scientists, on the other hand, have long attributed a small cooling effect to the ozone shortage in the hole. Now a new computer-modeling study suggests that the ozone hole might actually have a slight warming influence, but because of its effect on winds, not temperatures. The new research suggests that shifting wind patterns caused by the ozone hole push clouds farther toward the South Pole, reducing the amount of radiation the clouds reflect and possibly causing a bit of warming rather than cooling.

Hubble finds source of Magellanic Stream: Astronomers explore origin of gas ribbon wrapped around our galaxy

Posted: 08 Aug 2013 09:33 AM PDT

Astronomers have solved a 40-year mystery on the origin of the Magellanic Stream, a long ribbon of gas stretching nearly halfway around our Milky Way galaxy. New Hubble observations reveal that most of this stream was stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud some 2 billion years ago, with a smaller portion originating more recently from its larger neighbor.

Maya pyramid decorated with rare polychrome-painted stucco frieze

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 08:36 PM PDT

A Maya pyramid beautifully decorated with a rare polychrome-painted stucco frieze was unearthed in July 2013 at the site of Holmul, a Classic Maya city in northeastern Peten region of Guatemala. The find came as an archaeological team excavated in a tunnel left open by looters. The stucco relief stands along the exterior of a multi-roomed rectangular building, measuring 8m in length and 2m in height. Much of the building still remains encased under the rubble of a later 20m-high structure. The carving is painted in red, with details in blue, green and yellow.
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Kamis, 08 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Dogs yawn more often in response to owners' yawns than strangers

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 05:48 PM PDT

Dogs yawn contagiously when they see a person yawning, and respond more frequently to their owner's yawns than to a stranger's, according to new research.

Eavesdropping plants prepare to be attacked

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 05:46 PM PDT

In a world full of hungry predators, prey animals must be constantly vigilant to avoid getting eaten. But plants face a particular challenge when it comes to defending themselves.

Simple math sheds new light on a long-studied biological process

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 12:51 PM PDT

One of the most basic and intensively studied processes in biology —- one which has been detailed in biology textbooks for decades —- has gained a new level of understanding, thanks to the application of simple math to a problem that scientists never before thought could benefit from mathematics.

Type 1 diabetes drug strikingly effective in clinical trial

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 12:51 PM PDT

An experimental drug designed to block the advance of type 1 diabetes in its earliest stages has proven strikingly effective over two years in about half of the patients who participated in the phase 2 clinical trial.

First hundred thousand years of our universe

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:45 AM PDT

Researchers have taken the furthest look back through time yet -- 100 years to 300,000 years after the Big Bang -- and found tantalizing new hints of clues as to what might have happened.

Making connections in the eye: Wiring diagram of retinal neurons is first step toward mapping the human brain

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:42 AM PDT

Using a combination of human and artificial intelligence, scientists have mapped all the wiring among 950 neurons within a tiny patch of the mouse retina.

Strangers invade the homes of giant bacteria

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:41 AM PDT

Life is not a walk in the park for the world's largest bacteria, that live as soft, noodle-like, white strings on the bottom of the ocean depths. Without being able to fend for themselves, they get invaded by parasitic microorganisms that steal the nutrition, that they have painstakingly retrieved. This newly discovered bizarre deep ocean relationship may ultimately impact ocean productivity, report researchers.

The temperature tastes just right: Scientists discover previously unknown thermal sensor in insects linked to taste, smell

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:41 AM PDT

Animals have evolved very sensitive temperature sensors to detect the relatively narrow margin in which they can survive. Until recently, scientists knew little about how these sensors operated. Now, scientists have discovered a previously unknown molecular temperature sensor in fruit flies responsible for sensing tastes and smells. These types of sensors are present in disease-spreading insects like mosquitoes and may help scientists better understand how insects target humans and spread disease.

NIH, Lacks family reach understanding to share genomic data of HeLa cells

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:40 AM PDT

The National Institutes of Health has reached an understanding with the family of the late Henrietta Lacks to allow biomedical researchers controlled access to the whole genome data of cells derived from her tumor, commonly known as HeLa cells. These cells have already been used extensively in scientific research and have helped make possible some of the most important medical advances of the past 60 years. These include the development of modern vaccines, cancer treatments, in vitro fertilization techniques, and many others. HeLa cells are the most widely used human cell lines in existence today. Access to the whole genome data of these cells will be a valuable reference tool for researchers using HeLa cells in their research.

New proto-mammal fossil sheds light on evolution of earliest mammals

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:40 AM PDT

A newly discovered fossil reveals the evolutionary adaptations of a 165-million-year-old proto-mammal, providing evidence that traits such as hair and fur originated well before the rise of the first true mammals. Biologists have now described the biological features of this ancient mammalian relative, named Megaconus mammaliaformis.

Motional layers found in the brain: Neurobiologists discover elementary motion detectors in the fruit fly

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:35 AM PDT

Recognizing movement and its direction is one of the first and most important processing steps in any visual system. By this way, nearby predators or prey can be detected and even one's own movements are controlled. More than fifty years ago, a mathematical model predicted how elementary motion detectors must be structured in the brain. However, which nerve cells perform this job and how they are actually connected remained a mystery.

Regulating electron 'spin' may be key to making organic solar cells competitive

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:34 AM PDT

Organic solar cells that use carbon-based molecules to convert light to electricity have not been able to match the efficiency silicon-based cells. Now, researchers have discovered a synthetic, high-performance polymer that could make inexpensive, highly efficient organic solar panels a reality.

Q-glasses could be a new class of solids

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 10:01 AM PDT

There may be more kinds of stuff than we thought. Scientists have reported possible evidence for a new category of solids, things that are neither pure glasses, crystals, nor even exotic quasicrystals.

Gold 'nanoprobes' hold the key to treating killer diseases

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 09:58 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a technique to help treat fatal diseases more effectively. They are using gold nanoprobes to identify different types of cells, so that they can use the right ones in stem cell therapies.

Of stars and stripes: NASA satellites used to predict zebra migrations

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 09:29 AM PDT

One of the world's longest migrations of zebras occurs in the African nation of Botswana, but predicting when and where zebras will move has not been possible until now. Using NASA rain and vegetation data, researchers can track when and where arid lands begin to green, and for the first time anticipate if zebras will make the trek or, if the animals find poor conditions en route, understand why they will turn back.

Monarch butterflies migration path tracked by generations for first time

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 06:46 AM PDT

For the first time, researchers have mapped that migration pattern of monarch butterflies across the continent over an entire breeding season. That information might help conserve a creature increasingly threatened by loss of habitat and food sources.

The Odd Couple: Two very different gas clouds in the galaxy next door

Posted: 07 Aug 2013 06:43 AM PDT

ESO's Very Large Telescope has captured an intriguing star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud -- one of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies. A sharp new image reveals two distinctive glowing clouds of gas: red-hued NGC 2014, and its blue neighbour NGC 2020. While they are very different, they were both sculpted by powerful stellar winds from extremely hot newborn stars that also radiate into the gas, causing it to glow brightly.

Immune function restored in spinal injured mice

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 05:35 PM PDT

Scientists have shown that is possible to restore immune function in spinal injured mice. People with spinal cord injury often are immune compromised, which makes them more susceptible to infections. Why these people become immune-suppressed is not known, but the study found that a disorder called autonomic dysreflexia can cause immune suppression.

Inca children were drugged with coca and alcohol before sacrifice

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 06:18 AM PDT

Scientists have examined the bodies of three 500-year-old Inca children. This has given new, detailed knowledge about the old Ince ritual "capacocha" which also involved sacrificing humans. Now we know more precisely what happened in an Inca sacrifice -- for example, to what extent coca and alcohol were used as part of the Inca ritual in the months and weeks preceding a sacrifice.
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Rabu, 07 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

First probable person to person transmission of new bird flu virus in China; But H7N9 is not able to spread efficiently between humans

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 05:35 PM PDT

The first report of probable person to person transmission of the new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Eastern China has been documented. The findings provide the strongest evidence yet of H7N9 transmission between humans, but the authors stress that its ability to transmit itself is "limited and non-sustainable."

Length of human pregnancies can vary naturally by as much as five weeks

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 05:33 PM PDT

The length of a human pregnancy can vary naturally by as much as five weeks, according to new research.

What color is your night light? It may affect your mood

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 05:31 PM PDT

When it comes to some of the health hazards of light at night, a new study in hamsters suggests that the color of the light can make a big difference.

Dolphins keep lifelong social memories, longest in a non-human species

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 05:31 PM PDT

Dolphins can recognize their old tank mates' whistles after being separated for more than 20 years — the longest social memory ever recorded for a non-human species.

The sun's magnetic field is about to flip

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 02:16 PM PDT

Something big is about to happen on the sun. According to measurements from NASA-supported observatories, the sun's vast magnetic field is about to flip.

Explosion illuminates invisible galaxy in the dark ages

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 12:57 PM PDT

More than 12 billion years ago a star exploded, glowing so brightly that it outshone its entire galaxy by a million times. This brilliant flash traveled across space for 12.7 billion years to a planet that hadn't even existed at the time of the explosion -- our Earth. By analyzing this light, astronomers learned about a galaxy that was otherwise too small, faint and far away for even the Hubble Space Telescope to see.

New and remarkable details of the sun now available from Big Bear Observatory

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 11:55 AM PDT

Researchers have obtained new and remarkably detailed photos of the sun with the New Solar Telescope. The photographs reveal never-before-seen details of solar magnetism revealed in photospheric and chromospheric features.

Hormone receptors may regulate effect of nutrition on life expectancy not only in roundworms, but perhaps also in humans

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 11:54 AM PDT

A reduced caloric intake increases life expectancy in many species. But how diet prolongs the lives of model organisms such as fruit flies and roundworms has remained a mystery until recently. Scientists have now discovered that a hormone receptor is one of the links between nutrition and life expectancy in the roundworms. The receptor protein NHR-62 increases the lifespan of the animals by twenty per cent if their calorie intake is reduced. Furthermore, another study showed that the hormone receptor NHR-8 affects development into adulthood as well as the maximum lifespan of the worms. It may be possible that receptors related to these are also responsible for regulating life expectancy in human beings.

How plants avoid sunburn: Findings could lead to crops with increased protection from bright light and enhanced photosynthesis

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 10:29 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered a group of stress-related proteins that explains how plants avoid sunburn in intense light, a finding that one day could help biotechnologists to develop crops that can better cope with hotter, drier conditions occurring in climate change.

A layer of tiny grains can slow sound waves

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 10:29 AM PDT

Researchers say the findings could lead to a new way of controlling frequencies in electronic devices such as cellphones, but with components that are only a fraction the size of those currently used for that function. On a larger scale, it could lead to new types of blast-shielding material for use in combat or by public-safety personnel or equipment.

Emotional behavior of adults could be triggered in the womb

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 10:27 AM PDT

Adults could be at greater risk of becoming anxious and vulnerable to poor mental health if they were deprived of certain hormones while developing in the womb according to new research.

Bringing light to a halt: Physicists freeze motion of light for a minute

Posted: 06 Aug 2013 08:11 AM PDT

Physicists have been able to stop something that has the greatest possible speed and that never really stops: light. A decade ago, physicists stopped it very for a short moment. In recent years, this extended towards stop times of a few seconds for simple light pulses in extremely cold gases and special crystals. But now the same researchers extended the possible duration and applications for freezing the motion of light considerably. The physicists stopped light for about one minute. They were also able to save images that were transferred by the light pulse into the crystal for a minute -- a million times longer than previously possible.
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Selasa, 06 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Astronomers image lowest-mass exoplanet around a sun-like star

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 01:36 PM PDT

Using infrared data from the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, an international team of astronomers has imaged a giant planet around the bright star GJ 504. Several times the mass of Jupiter and similar in size, the new world, dubbed GJ 504b, is the lowest-mass planet ever detected around a star like the sun using direct imaging techniques.

New explanation for odd double-layer Martian craters

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 12:25 PM PDT

The surface of Mars it pocked by more than 600 "double-layered ejecta" DLE craters, but how these odd craters formed has been a mystery. A new study makes the case that glacial ice, possibly tens of meters thick at the time of impacts millions of years ago, may be responsible for the unique features of DLEs.

Could discovery lead to end of sunburn pain?

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 12:24 PM PDT

The painful, red skin that comes from too much time in the sun is caused by a molecule abundant in the skin's epidermis, a new study shows. Blocking this molecule, called TRPV4, greatly protects against the painful effects of sunburn. The research, which was conducted in mouse models and human skin samples, could yield a way to combat sunburn and possibly several other causes of pain.

Disappearance of coral reefs, drastically altered marine food web on the horizon

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 10:36 AM PDT

If history's closest analog is any indication, the look of the oceans will change drastically in the future as the coming greenhouse world alters marine food webs and gives certain species advantages over others.

Making a mini Mona Lisa: Nanotechnique creates image on surface less than a third the hair's width

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 10:11 AM PDT

Scientists have "painted" the Mona Lisa on a substrate surface approximately 30 microns in width -- or one-third the width of a human hair. The team's creation, the "Mini Lisa," demonstrates a technique that could potentially be used to achieve nanomanufacturing of devices because the team was able to vary the surface concentration of molecules on such short-length scales.

Questions answered with the pupils of your eyes

Posted: 05 Aug 2013 10:10 AM PDT

Patients who are otherwise completely unable to communicate can answer yes or no questions within seconds with the help of a simple system -- consisting of just a laptop and camera -- that measures nothing but the size of their pupils. The tool takes advantage of changes in pupil size that naturally occur when people do mental arithmetic. It requires no specialized equipment or training at all.
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Senin, 05 Agustus 2013

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Global investigation reveals true scale of ocean warming

Posted: 04 Aug 2013 11:44 AM PDT

Warming oceans are causing marine species to change breeding times and shift homes with expected substantial consequences for the broader marine landscape, according to a new global study.

Hidden magnetic waves discovered in high-temperature superconductors

Posted: 04 Aug 2013 11:44 AM PDT

Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity.

Locating the brain's GPS: Human neurons link to navigation in open environments

Posted: 04 Aug 2013 11:44 AM PDT

Using direct human brain recordings, scientists have identified a new type of cell in the brain that helps people to keep track of their relative location while navigating an unfamiliar environment.

Video games boost visual attention but reduce impulse control

Posted: 04 Aug 2013 05:11 AM PDT

A person playing a first-person shooter video game like Halo or Unreal Tournament must make decisions quickly. That fast-paced decision-making, it turns out, boosts the player's visual skills but comes at a cost, according to new research: reducing the person's ability to inhibit impulsive behavior. This reduction in what is called "proactive executive control" appears to be yet another way that violent video games can increase aggressive behavior.

Nasa's Hubble finds 'smoking gun' after gamma-ray burst

Posted: 04 Aug 2013 05:09 AM PDT

Probing the location of a recent short-duration gamma-ray burst in near-infrared light, astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope found the fading fireball produced in the aftermath of the blast. The afterglow reveals for the first time a new kind of stellar blast called a kilonova.
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